Normalization It is a process of refining the data model by ER diagram. It includes --> Refinement of ER model. --> Segregation of data over groups, entities/tables with min redundancy). --> Converts ER diagram to tables. Advantages --> min data redundancy. --> retreieve information easily. Need for normalization *) improves data base design. *) ensures min redundancy of data *) reduces need to reorganize data when design is deleted/enhanced. Unnormalized tables --> contain redundant data --> disorganized data --> problems arise with insertion,updation and deletion. First Normalization Steps 1) identify repeating groups of fields. 2) remove repeating groups of fields to a seperate table. 3) identify the keys for the table. 4) key of parent table is brought as a part of concatenated key of second table. Second Normalization Steps 1) check if all fields are dependent on whole key. 2) remove fields that are dependent on partial key. 3) group partially dependent fields as a seperate table. 4) name the table. 5) identify key / keys of the table. Third Normalization Steps 1) removes fields that depend on other non key attribute 2) can be calculated or derived from logic. 3) group independent fields as seperate tables,identify the key.